Research

Estimation of Fluoride Level in Drinking Water Sources of Eastern Development Region, Nepal

Singh A, Shrestha A, Bhagat TK

Abstract
Background
Water is essential for the survival of every living organism of this planet, we humans being no exception to this fact. In context of oral health promotion, fluoride when consumed in recommended level improves the strength of dental enamel thereby decreasing the solubility of the enamel to acidic exposure and hence the dental caries. This study was conducted to estimate the fluoride concentration in drinking water of eastern development region Nepal.
Materials and Methods
Water samples (165) were randomly collected from drinking water sources of Eastern Development Region, Nepal. Three categories of water samples (municipal, natural, packaged bottle water) each from three most populated cities of every district in the region were collected. The water samples were collected in autoclaved polypropylene plastic vessels. American Public Health Association (APHA) 4500 F- D method was used for fluoride estimation.
Results
Majority of the water samples (88.2%) had fluoride concentration below the optimum as per WHO guideline. Median fluoride concentration of municipal water supply, natural water resources and packaged bottle water was 0.09 ppm (<0.05 to 1.11 ppm), 0.13 ppm (<0.05 to 1.80 ppm) and 0.05ppm (<0.05 ppm to 0.78 ppm) respectively. Median fluoride concentration of Himalayan region, hill region and terai region was 0.17 ppm, 0.10 ppm and 0.07 ppm respectively. Overall median fluoride concentration of eastern development region Nepal was 0.08 ppm (<0.05 pmm to 1.80 ppm).
Conclusions
This study illustrated that fluoride concentration of most of the drinking water resources of eastern Nepal was below the recommended optimum level as per WHO guidelines.
Key words: Drinking Water Sources, Fluoride Concentration. Eastern Nepal.

 

 

“Impact of Community Diagnosis Programme (CDP) on Undergraduate Students at BPKIHS: A Cross Sectional Study”

Singh A, Subedi K, Shrestha A, Bhagat TK, Pyakurel P, Agrawal SK

Abstract
Background
Community Diagnosis Programme (CDP) aims to demonstrate the importance of teamwork in health care to understand the comprehensive health needs of the rural peopleand conceive about theresearch.
Objective:
This study was conducted to assess the impact of community diagnosis program on undergraduate students of BPKIHS, Dharan, Nepal.
Materials and Methods
A cross sectional study with mixed design (quantitative and qualitative) was conducted among the undergraduate students of batch 2017 participating in CDP programme of BPKIHS, Dharan, Nepal. Eight questionnaires assessed the student’s perceptions regarding their abilities about community diagnosis program using six-point Likert Scale and four open ended questions were used to know the students experience and perception of CDP.
 Results
Overall mean ±SD score for pre-exposure response was 30.47±6.18 and for the post-exposure response was 40.49±5.16. The overall mean ±SD score of the students categorized according to streams showed similar results in both pre-exposure response and post-exposure responses. Qualitative analysis revealed the themes like “Research, a reflection of community and new method of learning to medical students”; “method of developing confidence and good communication skills”, “learning to work as a team” and “exposure to rural area”; “Research an adjunct to medical profession”.
Conclusion
CDP had a positive impact on the students about basic survey process, learnt to communicate with rural people, understood the type of data and were willing to participate in similar projects in future. Qualitative analysis showed most of the students had positive experience with some negative experience of CDP.
Key words: Community Diagnosis Programme, Undergraduate Students, BPKIHS, Nepal.

 

“Assessment of Oral Health Status and Treatment Needs Among People of Foklyan Area, Dharan, Nepal”

Singh A, Shrestha A, Bhagat TK

Abstract
Background
Dental caries is considered a major public health problem globally due to its high prevalence and significant social impact.
Objective
To assess the oral health status and treatment needs among the people of Foklyan area, Dharan.
Methods
House to house survey was conducted on 310 randomly selected participants of Foklyan area, Dharan. The participants were stratified into five age groups (WHO Basic Oral Health Survey Methods 1997) and further categorized by gender. WHO Oral Health Assessment form 1997, WHO oral health assessment questionnaire for adult/children 2013 and questionnaire for oral hygiene practice and cost as a treatment barrier were used. The examinations were done as per WHO standard guidelines.
Results
Most of the participants were from low socioeconomic background (71.3%). About 40.0% of the participants deferred dental visit due to financial burden. Although 90.0% of the participants brushed their teeth, there was high caries experience (DMFT: 3.18±5.85; dft: 2.40±2.65). Mean sextant score for bleeding was 5.58 in 35 – 44 years age group and 5.61 in 65 – 74 years age group. Prosthetic needs of the participants were 31.7% in lower arch and 24.6% in upper arch. Tobacco consumption was seen in about 70.9% of the adults and alcohol consumption was 58.8% among adult age groups. Mandatory orthodontic treatment was needed for 5.8% of participants for esthetics.
Conclusion
The prevalence of dental caries, periodontal diseases, and prosthetic needs was more compared to the findings of NOHPS 2004. There is need for oral health education and promotion in this area to improve their oral health.
Key words
Oral Health Assessment, Dental Caries, Indigenous Population.